Thursday, April 2, 2020
History WWI-Comparison of German+French Soldiers experiences The first World War was a horrible experience for all sides involved. No one was immune to the effects of this global conflict and each country was affected in various ways. However, one area of relative comparison can be noted in the experiences of the French and German soldiers. In gaining a better understanding of the French experience, Wilfred Owen's Dulce et Decorum Est was particularly useful. Regarding the German soldier's experience, various selections from Erice Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front proved to be a valuable source of insight. A analysis of the above mentioned sources, one can note various similarities between the German and French armies during World War I in the areas of trench warfare, ill-fated troops, and military technology. Trench warfare was totally unbiased. The trench did not discriminate between cultures. This "new warfare" was unlike anything the world had seen before, milli ons of people died during a war that was supposed to be over in time for the holidays. Each side entrenched themselves in makeshift bunkers that attempted to provide protection from the incoming shells and brave soldiers. After receiving an order to overtake the enemies bunker, soldiers trounced their way through the land between the opposing armies that was referred to as "no man's land." The direness of the war was exemplified in a quotation taken from Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, "Attacks alternate with counter-attacks and slowly the dead pile up in the field of craters between the trenches. We are able to bring in most of the wounded that do not lie too far off. But many have long to wait and we listen to them dying." (382) After years of this trench warfare, corpses of both German and French soldiers began to pile up and soldiers and civilians began to realize the futility of trench warfare. However, it was many years before any major thrusts were made along t he Western front. As soldiers past away, recruits were ushered to the front to replenish the dead and crippled. These recruits were typically not well prepared for the rigors of war and were very often mowed down due to their stupidity. Both the French and Germans were guilty of sending ill-prepared youths to the front under the guise that "It is sweet and fitting to die for one's country." (380) Owen's Dulce et Decorum Est is a prime example of this "false optimism" created by the military machine in France to recruit eager new troops to die a hero's death on the front lines. Remarque also alluded to the fact incompetent young recruits were sentence to death. In reference to the young recruits Remarque stated, "It brings a lump into the throat to see how they go over, and run and fall. A man would like to spank them, they are so stupid, and to take them by the arm and lead them away from here where they have no business to be." (383) Millions of French and German soldiers, both you ng and old lost their lives during this world-wide struggle for survival. It is not necessary for one to go through an intense amount of abstraction in order to note similarities in the weaponry each side employed during the first World War. "Bombardment, barrage, curtain-fire, mines, gas, tanks, machine-guns, hand grenades" were all weapons that served the same purpose. (383) It did not matter if these weapons were in the hands of German or French soldiers, they all indiscriminately dealt death to the opposition. Gas was a particularly horrid creation. It would seeming spring out of the ground without much notice and if one did not seek the security of a gas mask, dreams would be smothered "under a green sea" and as one solider stated (in reference to those who were caught up in the pungent clouds of death) "He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning." (380) Typical sights for soldiers on any given day were "men without mouths, without jaws, without faces; we find one man w ho has held the artery of his arm in his teeth for two hours in order not to bleed to death. (384) The destructive weapons
Sunday, March 8, 2020
dresden essays It is said that war is inhuman, but I have to disagree. War is vicious, immoral and heartless-true, but if anything it is one of the most human things that exists today. War satisfies a deep primal urge that very few other things can. Battle and fighting in general are very deeply inlaid into the human psyche, the primitive brain holds a certain hunger for the loss of life and pain of others. But modern man is said to have evolved past that. Instilling cutting edge technology to do the dirty deeds of trained madmen, we can sit back, breathe easy, and convince ourselves that we are not deeply relishing this sadistic feast of mortality. The excuses for carnage in 1945 were incendiary bombs. These were bombs filled with some sort of highly combustible chemical, usually napalm. With these, firestorms were invented. Firestorms consist of hundreds of incendiary bombs dropped from planes over a target. After the area catches fire, the air above the bombed area becomes extremely hot and rise s rapidly. Cold air then rushes in at ground level from the outside and people are sucked into the fire. One of the most sadly unknown, yet most deadly of firestorms is Dresden during World War II. The Allies deliberately attacked Dresden in order to break the morale of the Germans. It was claimed that the real reason behind the bombing of Dresden was the destruction of Germans main communications center, but in reality it was a refuge. Dresdens normal population of 650,000 had most likely doubled in the ending months of the war. RAF commanders have said that the bombing was really to trap the German civilians inside, not allowing them to leave the country. Others have said it was to show the Russians how much firepower the British and the U.S. controlled. For whatever reason Dresden was destroyed on February 13th, 1945. 775 Avro Lancasters were sent from the Oboe ground station close behind the front line. 3,300 to ...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Teachings of Islam - Research Paper Example Islam is just another monotheistic religion like Judaism and Christianity and like them preaches the oneness of God whom the Muslims call Allah. There are differences present in the practices but Islam in originality is a peaceful religion and it is the practice of the few which has gotten it labeled as a terrorist, violent or extremist religion. The basic beliefs and tenets of Islam The main belief of Islam lies in monotheism. Islam's fundamental belief is that God is one and Mohammad is His messenger. This belief can be elaborated by believing that God is one and supreme, unique, all encompassing and powerful. The second belief lies in the prophet hood of prophet Mohammad who initiated the religion in 610 A.D. Their belief relative to prophets is that prophets are human being sent for the guidance and showing the right path. Also that out of many prophets sent by God Mohammad is the last prophet. Thus Islam acknowledges the presence and the prophet hood of Jew and Christian prophet s like Jesus, Moses etc and their names are mentioned in the holy book of Muslims, the Quran. The third belief of Islam states that God sent Holy books of which Quran is meant to be for eternal guidance and all other books are negated by the revelation of Quran. The fourth belief lies in angels who are pure non-human beings performing divine jobs and the last belief lies in resurrection and the day of judgment. This day of judgment, according to Muslim beliefs will be the day when all actions will be weighed and decision regarding heavens or hell will be made. (Alhoda, 2001) There are five basic tenets of Islam of which the first and the foremost is belief in God with all his attributes and attributing no other partners with him. The second is saying prayers five times a day and men gathering in the mosque for Friday afternoon prayers. The third is fasting from dawn to duck in the Holy month of Ramadan (Muslims follow the lunar calendar) and the fourth is giving a fixed percentage o f wealth in the path of God to the poor and the needy. The last is performing pilgrimage to Mecca once in the lifetime for all those who can afford to do so. (Devera) Islam and Muslims in the U.S Muslims entered the United States as Moriscoes who accompanied Columbus when the continent was first discovered. These were followed by slaves who were brought to work in the US and the waves of migrations increased the number of Muslims (Kabourra). In the U.S. today there are between 6-8 million Muslims in the United States out of which African-Americans are predominant. It is the fastest growing faith in the United States (A brief history of islam in the United states) and mosques, Islamic centers and Islamic schools are found in every Muslim community. Regional and national conferences of Muslims are held and issues of common concern are streamlined. Muslims in the USA are allowed to freely practice their religion and MSA's (Muslim Students Association) are present and active in all coll eges and universities. A survey reports that there are 1000 mosques, 400 Islamic schools, 400 associations and over 80 Islamic publications in the US. (A brief history of islam in the United states). Thus Muslims in the United States can practice their religion more freely than a few Islamic countries for example like Turkey where the headscarf is banned or like Egypt or Morocco where being extremely devout is often
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Business law - Assignment Example t, that certain evidence be not presented or considered legal at the trial because it is believed by the defendant that the evidence has been obtained by the illegal means, generally inÃ violationÃ of theÃ Fourth AmendmentÃ (search and seizure), Fifth AmendmentÃ (privilegeÃ against self incrimination). Advice/Conclusion: If the evidence with regard to bribery has been obtained by illegal means in violation of Fourth/Fifth Amendment, there is a case for suppression of subpoena and the judge may hear and decide a motion to suppress. Ã¢â¬Å"At a hearing on a motion to suppress, the judge may receive evidence on any fact related to the motion. Hearsay is admissible. Evidence Rules 11-1101(D)(1) and 11-104(A).Ã¢â¬ (JEC, Institute of Public Law) Analysis: Its compulsory to take third party insurance in most of the states in US. Innocent victims who are not responsible for accidents would be covered under third party insurance. The driver of the vehicle pays for the medical expenses with his third party insurance. Question Ã¢â¬â 3: Rebeccas complaint also alleges that in Rebeccas state there is a law forbidding commercial truck drivers from using cell phones while driving and that Coastal Constructions driver was using a cell phone at the time of the accident. What cause of action does this describe? Analysis: Apart from duty of care arising out of contractual obligations, individuals owe duty of care to strangers as well. An individual or group on performing any activity that harm another, either physically, mentally, or economically, Ã¢â¬Ënegligence in duty of careÃ¢â¬â¢ comes into picture. Taking reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which a person can reasonably foresee would likely to injure others is the underlying point.Ã When a person is not responsible for the situation that warranted any incident which resulted into injury to others the person is not liable.Ã This general principle was established in the land mark case of Donoghue v Stevenson.in the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Realism In Narrative Fiction Film Studies Essay John Ellis has remarked that there is no realism but there are realisms. Explore the implications of this comment in relation to television drama. There is no universal, all encompassing definition of realism, nor is there agreement amongst academics and film-makers as to its purpose and use. But what we can say is that there are many realisms and these realisms share an interest in presenting some aspects of live as it is lived. (Lay, 2002, pg.6) This quote really helped me to understand the question in hand and what John Ellis meant when he said that there is no realism but there are realisms. In the context that I am writing in, about television drama, it means that different television dramas represent different aspects of reality and each one has its own unique function and purpose. For example, soap operas use realistic, life-like situations and issues such as divorce, death, teenage angst and relationships. These are topics that every person has had to deal with at some point in there life. Obviously the storylines on these programmes are greatly exaggerated but they can either help by showing people ways of getting through them or by showing them that their own lives are not as bad as they may think compared to those on screen. Other television dramas present other aspects of reality such as The Bill or Doctors illustrate what live is like in different institutions (i.e. the police force and a doctors surgery) and the struggles that they face in the professional and personal life. To begin with I shall present and explore the views and opinions on realism of other writers that I have researched into and observe their position on Ellis statement that there is no one realism. In addition to this, I am going to be looking at two case studies. These studies will be regarding television dramas of different genres so that I can make comparisons between them. I will also look at how realism is used in these dramas and which theories relate to them. Then I shall look at Desperate Housewives, which is an American drama set in a cul-de-sac in suburbia where the residents are best friends but all hide dark secrets from one another. I will review Holby City, a drama set in a British hospital that explores not only the situations and issues of the patients, but also follows on going storylines about the lives and relationships concerning the staff. I shall then do my own analysis of each drama individually and comparatively, looking at conventions and how they relate to th eories of realism such as British Social Realism and the Classic Realist Text. John Ellis wrote about realism in his book Visible Functions cinema, television and radio, which is where the quote in the title is cited from. In his chapter on realism he says that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the word realism is used to cover a whole series of ideas and expectations, some of which can conflict each other (1992, pg.15). By this he is saying that there are so many different theories and ideas into what realism is, this means that we cannot talk about realism as having one definition because there is no one realism. Therefore we can only refer to these theories as realisms because there is no one way of describing what is it. Ellis goes on to say how he believes that realism can often be over complicated as the word is used to describe a range of artist construction and of audience expectation. In his realism chapter he also talks about how it is not just a realistic portrayal of character and events that makes a television programme realistic. He says that the programme also nee ds surface accuracy and to confirm the perceptions of what an audience expects to happen within a television programme that you would be expecting from preconceived ideas and common sense. It also needs to explain itself fully to the audience to fill in the gaps of what they do not figure out from these preconceptions made from previous viewing. However, these aspects to programme making are not enough on their own. For example, when thinking about surface accuracy media producers will also need to be thinking about all features that make up this one area, such as characters costumes, settings and props. In his book Ellis talks about realism as being a way of trying to depict things as they either are or as they were. He goes on to dispute this by saying that the demand that a representation should explain itself adequately to the audience cuts right across the desire that it should show things as they were' (1992, pg.16). By this I think that he is saying that an adequate represent ation may not necessarily show events as they were. This is because programme makers are sometimes more absorbed in making sure that a programme is entertaining to its audience than that it is a completely accurate representation. According to Ellis there are 4 ways in which realism can be used and shown. However, because of how society constantly changes and develops these descriptions will also be in need of changing so that they are more appropriate to todays society. Programme makers are also trying to break the conventions of realism and try out new techniques and methods to create a new sense of reality and how we recognise it. The other books that I looked in for research said very similar things about how there can be no one explanation for what realism is. In the book Picture of Reality they talk about how knowledge is socially constructed and say that for realism, no formal criteria can be adequate to the task of characterising scientific explanations (Lovell, 1980, pg.17). Later on in this book they go on to talk about how people try to find patterns in realism when there really isnt any to find. I have also been doing some research on this topic in the book Television Drama realism, modernism and British culture. In this book John Caughie talks about what he calls serious drama, which is what he refers to as a scare quote by which he means that he uses this term just to make people realise that studying television drama is not just as simple as watching ER. By this term he means that we should look at dramas in a more cultural way and although it is a series drama, he means that it is series in ways other than just its content. He says Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦legitimate cultural territory within television from other areas which are legitimated by the official discourse of cultural approval (Caughie, 2000, pg.3). In this introductory chapter to his book Caughie also talks about how we stereotype genders to certain television dramas, for example women are more associated with soap operas whereas men are seen as more likely to watch action dramas. Then, because of this we then slip in to what he calls a natural order. To put Ellis theory about how there is no one realism into context I am going to be looking at and analysing the television drama that is Desperate Housewives (fig.1). I will be talking about what the drama is about, where it is set and the characters in it. As well as this I will be exploring how this supports the opinion of Ellis that this drama will only be representative of one type of realism and portray one aspect of live. Desperate Housewives is a drama made mainly for the purpose of entertaining its target audience. It is based around four main female characters, and narrated by a woman who used to be in their circle of friends but committed suicide in the first episode. The programme follows these women through their lives and the challenges and traumas that they face in the weekly episodes. Like a soap opera the events that take place are usually the type of situations that people are confronted with in every day live. However, the frequency of the events is exaggerated imm ensely in order to make the programme more appealing and entertaining to its audience. This means that Desperate Housewives both does and does not display realism, because the events and the way they and handled are realistic, yet the regularity at which they are occurring are not realistic for a setting such as the one in which this drama is situated. This location of this programme is another aspect to consider in terms of realism. By this I mean that Desperate Housewives is set in a quiet col-de-sac called Wisteria Lane (fig.2) in the fictional town of Fairview. This is another issue that could be deemed realistic or not because the town itself is not a real place, but it is realistic in the sense that it is representative of suburban towns and streets in America. Looking at even these view issues we can begin to unravel what Ellis means when he says that there can be no one definition of what realism is. This is because even in this one television drama there are many different areas that we have to look when considering if it is realistic. We cannot declare that the programme is realistic as a whole when some areas may lack in realism. In certain ways Desperate Housewives does relate to some aspects of the Classic Realist Text. I mean this is the sense that it will quite often use dominant specularity, where we as the viewer know more than the main characters. This will happen in the majority, if not all of the episodes because even though the main characters are a group of women who are best friends, they still have many secrets from each other. As the audience we are aware of everything that happens on Wisteria Lane, whereas if there is a scandalous event occurring that involves one of these women no one else will be conscious of it. Desperate Housewives also deals with some of the issues raised within Social Realism, but not in the sense that it deals with working class characters because the families are very middles class. However, in the way that it deals with contemporary issues such as homosexuality, suicide and racial issues. I also decided to examine Ellis theory in relation to a different type of television drama so to make comparisons between to the two. To do this I chose to look at Casualty (fig.3), a hospital drama which is broadcast on BBC1. Casualty is the longest running medical drama (first broadcast in 1986) and it follows the lives of the staff and patients in the Accident and Emergency department at the fictional Holby City Hospital which is located in Bristol. The programme not only concentrates on the goings on within the hospital, but also explores the private lives of the staff. It also does not only focus on the one profession of people in the hospital (i.e. the doctors), but centres around surgeons, nurses, receptionists etc (fig.4). This makes the drama seem a lot more realistic because obviously all the staff in a hospital are of equal importance. The makers show this by not having just a few main characters; instead they have many characters that get roughly the same amount of screen time and storylines each. Each episode will start off with the back story of the person, or the family of the person, who is going to be the main patient within that episode. We will see the events leading up to their incident and see how it happens. Obviously the majority of the programme is set in the hospital but we also follow to ambulance drivers when they go on call outs. This makes Casualty fit in with certain aspects of Social Realism which is often filmed on location. There are ways in which Casualty is both realistic and not. It shows good realism from a medical perspective, they manage this because they have real medical staff on set at all time to make sure that everything is represented accuracy. They also have to make sure that they always use the correct terminology and get all of the medical concepts exactly right as to make sure medically it is 100% accurate. However, similarly to Desperate Housewives, the lack of realism is down to the frequency at which events ar e occurring. Every week in Holby City hospital there are many more disastrous accidents and much more disease than any real life hospital would see, but again the incidents obviously all need to be exaggerated greatly to keep the audience interested in the programme. I can make a similar observation of Casualty that I did of Desperate Housewives. This is that Ellis was write in his theory that there is no realism is correct, not only over television drama itself (that is to say that all programmes represent different aspects of reality) but in each drama individually. This becomes more and more obvious when analysing television dramas because, as I said before, there are so many elements to a drama that some could be realistic and some could not be. Therefore, event within one drama series there are what can only be described as realisms. Both of these television dramas that I have been studying have a lot of similar conventions to those of social realism. To begin with they both deal with the contemporary issues that I mentioned before (e.g. homosexuality) in a very open way and do not try to hide this type of issues away, because that is not what we should and do act like in society. They are also contemporary in the sense that, unlike watching a film, we never know what is going to happen in the end because there is no end, and the programme makers may not even know so it is impossible for anyone else to. In addition to this, they fit the convention of being secular; an extension of real life, because they use real life situations and adapt them to entertain their target audience. In contrast to Ellis views about how there are many realisms, some people do believe in Anti-realism. This theory basically says that realist theories only show the surface and that we need to question the understanding behind it. Lukacs would say that realism fails to look at underlying social structure within television dramas and that it should advance our knowledge of society by focusing more on the programmes narratives. He also goes on to say that new social realities are in need of new forms of representation to get them across to the viewer. Although I do agree with some one the anti-realist policies and that some realist theories do need to grow with the development of society, I still think that Ellis was correct in his quote that there is no realism, but there are realisms. This is because in my eyes there can be no one definition of realism because every film or programme that we watch show reality it a different way. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
What is war? Is war a place to kill? Or is it a place where something more than just killing happens? War, as defined by the Merriam Webster is Ã¢â¬Å"a state or period of usually open and declared fighting between states or nations.Ã¢â¬ War, can also be viewed with romantic ideals where heroes and legends are born. Even the most intelligent of us hold some rather naÃ ¯ve notions of war. Upon reading Kurt VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s Slaughterhouse Five, intelligent readers have been divested of any romantic notions regarding war they may have harboured. In Slaughterhouse Five the reader is encouraged to show contempt for war and to abandon all hopes of thinking war as a place where deeds of heroism are and bravery are performed. A character in the novel, Roland Weary, seems to think the very opposite of what Vonnegut is trying to communicate in the novel. He sees war as an adventure, a time for exploration, not as a time where horrible atrocities are committed and where massacres take place. Even army personnel turn on each other. Billy Pilgrim who is being beaten by Roland Weary is saved from death, ironically, when a German patrol finds him. Another bunch of characters that seem to Ã¢â¬ËmistakeÃ¢â¬â¢ war as something fun is the English officers at the POW camp. In the words of Vonnegut, Ã¢â¬Å"they made war look stylish, reasonable and fun.Ã¢â¬ Another interesting thing that Vonnegut does is that he frequently uses the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"So it goes,Ã¢â¬ after every death or mention of dying in the novel. He uses the phrase very often, and after a certain amount of time, it begins to remind the reader that the reader is powerless to stop all the killing that is going on. Vonnegut uses irony very often to strengthen the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ contempt for war. Edgar Derby, the well-liked high sc... ...me soldiers refuse to fire a shot due to the great personal conflict within them to kill another human being. Normal human beings cannot kill in cold blood. Normal human beings usually canÃ¢â¬â¢t even think about killing somebody. To not feel remorse after killing a fellow human being would be inhuman. Slaughterhouse Five is not a book that should be glanced over and discarded away like a dirty rag. Slaughterhouse Five is a book that should be carefully analyzed and be seen as an inspiration to further improve the well-being of mankind. Vonnegut makes it clear that an easy way to improve mankind is to see war not as a place where legends are born, but rather, an event to be avoided. Intelligent readers and critics alike should recognize VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s work and see to it that they make an effort to understand the complexities behind the human condition that lead us to war.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
For years, geologists have been predicting that a major earthquake will occur in california. In october 1989, a 7.1 quake hit the san francisco area. Five years later, northridge and southern california experienced an earthquake of similar magnitude. Why too many people is still coming to places like california where earthquakes and natural disasters are predicted? In my point of view, these are the strongest reasons: the most popular place to emmigrate, job opportunities, and better schools, education, and systems. California is the most popular place to emmigrate because it has a great weather, there are too many touristic atractions, many different places you can go to, and there is too many people that come from the same place you came from. I want to use mexican people as an example, they all come for one reason, Ã¢â¬Å"SuccedÃ¢â¬ . They also know they will find a lot of people from mexico in california, specially in los angeles.They also kown that probably about half of the people california would talk spanish so I wonÃ¢â¬ t be really hard for them to communicate with others. Job opportunities is another really strong factor that induces people to come and look for a better life. There are so many jobs in california that is almost a sure thing that anyone would get a job, educated or not educated people, or even if you are not legally able to work in usa you will still get a job. You can easily support yourself with a minimun wage, because you will probably get about 45 or 50 dollards a day when in places like mexico you will just get five dollards for the whole day and doing a really heavy job. Also relatively speaking, everything is expensive in mexico, I mean, here you can get or buy whatever you need for a low price, and you will still have some money left, but in mexico, you will never have enough money unless you are in the high class. Ã¢â¬Å"Schools,Ã¢â¬ california has great schools, great education level, and better systems than other places. Ucla and usc are some of the great universities california has and if you think about it, everything is related, if you go to a good school and become a really educated person, you will get a really good job and make really good money and then you wonÃ¢â¬ t really worry about a good future because with your education that wiil be garranty. Scientist, doctors, and some other educated people come to usa, not only to california because of all technology that is here and can be helpul. A lot of support from schools, people, and business are another reasons teat encourages you to keep going and get better everyday, and if one day you decide to go back to the place you came from your education will open lots of doors for you. In my personal point of view, I think some people are aware of the disasters that are predicted, some others donÃ¢â¬ t care or just donÃ¢â¬ t believe it, nad the other part just come to make some money and come back to their native places. It is a true fact that so many people is still coming to california and when you hear about those things that are predicted, IÃ¢â¬ m sure you ask yourself why do people still come if they are aware of whatÃ¢â¬ S going on? , well if you think about it IÃ¢â¬ m sure you will come out with almoist the same answers I just told.